Axis & Allies Europe
Alternate Victory Conditions and Optional Rules Version 2.0 dated 3/4/05
The following are a set of optional rules meant to be used with Hasbro’s / Avalon Hill’s splendid Axis & Allies Europe wargame. This is an unofficial supplement to Axis & Allies Europe.
1. Alternate Victory Conditions:
The following alternative victory conditions may be used in lieu of those included in the basic game rules.
1.1 German Victory Conditions:
The German player wins by defeating both England and Russia. England is defeated by Germany capturing the Great Britain area and holding it for one turn while retaining control of the Germany area. Russia is defeated by Germany capturing and holding all three major Russian cities (Leningrad, Stalingrad, and Moscow), holding the last of the three captured for one turn while retaining control of the Germany area. Should Germany achieve the defeat of England and Russia, the US sues for peace and Germany secures it rule over Europe!
1.2 Allied Victory Conditions:
Allied victory conditions remain essentially unchanged from the basic game. The Allies must first avoid the Germans achieving their victory conditions! Other than that, as in the basic game, one of the Allied players must occupy Germany and hold it for one turn while maintaining control of their own capital. This will result in an Allied team victory.
1.3 Notes on Victory Conditions:
1.3.1 Once Russia is defeated (as described above), it cannot be liberated and therefore cannot reenter the game. Once Russia is defeated, the capture of German held former Russian territories by the remaining Allies simply adds that territory to that Allies’ holdings and denies the territory to the German player. Once Russia is defeated, the Germans do not have to defeat it a second time even if the remaining Allies retake Moscow.
1.3.2 In contrast to the Russian situation, England may be liberated. Should one of the remaining Allies retake Great Britain, the British are considered liberated. At that moment, all former British territories currently controlled by any other Allied nation revert to British control. Control markers on the map board are adjusted as necessary. The IPC markers on the National Production Chart are adjusted accordingly. The British reclaim their place in the turn sequence and on their next turn begin to collect IPC’s once again. If Germany defeats England but has not yet defeated Russia and the remaining Allies then liberate England, Germany will have to defeat England a second time to meet that part of its victory conditions.
1.3.3 Russia continues to receive IPC’s until the last of its three major cities is captured. The loss of Moscow does not stop Russian income unless Moscow is the last of the three cities to be captured. Russia also does not surrender the IPC’s in its possession to Germany until the last of the three cities falls to Germany. The loss of Moscow does not trigger the surrender of IPC’s to Germany unless Moscow is the last of the three cities to fall.
2. Optional Rules:
The following optional rules are provided to both allow the players to play-balance the game as well as to add some spice to the game. These rules can be used in any combination so long as all players agree to the rules prior to the start of the game.
2.1 Pro – Allies:
2.1.1 Lend Lease:
The British and US may attempt to provide Russia with funds from their own income. At the beginning of their own turn, the British or US player sets aside the number of IPC’s that he wishes to transfer to the Russian player. This amount can be up to the entire amount of the player’s IPC’s. These funds represent resources and materials provided by the Western Allies to Russia via convoy. It is not guaranteed that the entire amount of IPC’s being transferred to Russia will make it. To represent the risk of convoy attack and the intrinsic inefficiency of such transfers, the Russian player must roll a die at the beginning of their next turn to determine the percentage of funds that make it into his treasury.
Die Roll: Percentage of Transferred US and British IPC’s that make it to Russia: 1 90% 2 80% 3 50% 4 50% 5 40% 6 30% • Add one to the die roll if Russia does not control the Archangel territory.
Multiply the IPC’s set aside by the percentage indicated by the die roll and round up. This figure represents the surviving IPC’s. The surviving IPC’s are immediately added to the Russian treasury and may be spent normally.
2.1.2 Siberian Reinforcements:
Historically, the Russian position in the fall of 1941 was critical. German forces were approaching Moscow, encircling Leningrad, and generally overrunning and destroying all remaining European Soviet military power. The Russians however had an ace up their sleeve in the form of their Asian armies. These tough Siberian units had been held in Asia to guard against any aggressive moves by the Japanese. However, Russian intelligence confirmed that the Japanese had made the decision to attack the US and avoid conflict with Russia. This allowed Russia to transfer these formidable forces west. These units arrived in the Moscow area just as the German forces were appearing on the outskirts of Moscow. These forces, along with the Russian winter, finally stopped the Nazi advance.
At the beginning of the third Russian turn, the Russian player rolls a die. The result determines the size and composition of the Siberian reinforcements.
Die Roll: Siberian Reinforcements: 1 8 x inf, 4 x tank, 4 x arty, 1 x fighter 2 8 x inf, 3 x tank, 4 x arty 3 7 x inf, 3 x tank, 3 x arty 4 7 x inf, 3 x arty 5 6 x inf, 2 x arty 6 6 x inf
The resulting reinforcements are immediately placed in Moscow. If Moscow has been captured, the reinforcements are placed in any original Russian territory still under Russian control.
2.1.3 Russian Winter:
One of the most important allies that the Russians had in 1941 was “General Winter”. The Germans, confident of a swift victory over the Soviets, did not plan on the campaign going beyond the end of the year. As a result, they saw no need to equip their forces for winter operations. Even has they done so, it is unlikely that they could have foreseen the severity of the Russian winter. As it was, they were brutally introduced to the typical Russian winter as their offensive ground to a halt at the gates of Moscow. One of the most devastating effects of the Russian winter was the interruption of ground and air movement. This of course affected both armies, but as the Germans were on the offensive, the debilitating effects on air and ground operations were more damaging to them than to the Russians.
This rule requires the tracking of turns during the game to determine when winter and spring occur. Attachment “A” of these rules is a time chart for the game. Each complete game turn represents a three-month season. At the beginning of the winter and spring turns, the German player rolls a die to determine the weather:
Die Roll: Winter Weather: Spring Weather: 1 Snow Snow 2 Snow Mud 3 Snow Mud 4 Mud Clear 5 Mud Clear 6 Clear Clear
The effects of these various weather conditions are as follows:
Weather: Effect: Snow All ground units move 1 space only. All air movement halved (fighters a total of 2 spaces, bombers 3 spaces). Mud All ground units move 1 space only. All other movement per standard rules. Clear None – all movement per standard rules.
These effects occur in all original Russian territories only. Any units that start their turn in one of these territories are subject to these weather effects.
2.2 Pro – German:
2.2.1 US Neutrality:
It was not a given that the US and Germany would go to war. Although tensions had been high through the summer and fall of 1941 in the Atlantic (to the point of a US destroyer being torpedoed by a German U-Boat) and Roosevelt’s desire to help the British fight Hitler, the US population was still deeply isolationist. December 7th and Pearl Harbor definitely broke the US out of its isolationist slumber, but its anger was directed at Japan. Most in the US would have been quite happy to fight “their” war in the Pacific while the British and Russians fought their war in Europe. However, Hitler prevented that from happening on December 10th by declaring war on the US. The Tripartite Pact did not require Hitler to do so, since it was the Japanese who were the aggressors, but in a fit a madness, Hitler made it a truly world war.
What if Hitler had not lost his head and instead kept his focus on Europe? This rule simulates that. When using this rule, the US is considered a neutral country. It cannot be attacked or occupied by either side, nor can either side overfly its territory. The US is considered to be totally focused on the Pacific. Good luck England and Russia!
2.2.2 US Sues for Peace After One Ally is Defeated:
Given that the US was at war with Japan and that the Pacific was seen by the general populous (if not the war planners in the government) as the primary US theater of operations, it would have been possible that had either England or Russia fallen, the US would have sought terms with Germany in order to pursue its war with Japan.
Should Russia fall, US player immediately rolls two dice: Roll of US 2 Sues for peace 3 Sues for peace 4 Sues for peace 5 Fights on 6 Fights on 7 Fights on 8 Fights on 9 Fights on 10 Fights on 11 Fights on 12 Fights on
Should England fall, US player immediately rolls two dice: Roll of US 2 Sues for peace 3 Sues for peace 4 Sues for peace 5 Sues for peace 6 Fights on 7 Fights on 8 Fights on 9 Fights on 10 Fights on 11 Fights on 12 Sues for peace
2.2.3 Relaxed Requirement for Defeat of Russia:
Rather than having to capture and hold all three major Russian cities, the German play has only to hold Moscow, per the original rules, in order to defeat Russia.
2.3 General Optional Rules:
2.3.1 Atomic Weapons:
Historically, both the US and Germany worked to develop an atomic bomb. As we now know, the US effort was far ahead of the German, with obvious consequences. However, it did not have to be this way. This rule allows for either side to develop the bomb and deploy it.
Development: Beginning on the fall of 1944 turn for every turn thereafter, both Germany and the US may roll two dice at the beginning of their turn. Based on their present economic (IPC) level, they will have a certain chance to develop the bomb. Roll of IPC level 0-30 IPC level 31-45 IPC level >45 2 Bomb Bomb Bomb 3 No Bomb Bomb 4 No No Bomb 5 No No No 6 No No No 7 No No No 8 No No No 9 No No No 10 No No No 11 No No No 12 No No Bomb
Deployment: Once a nation has the bomb, it can be used as follows: The bomb is used during strategic bombing raids. The raids are conducted per the normal rules with the following exceptions: 1. Only one bomber may be designated as an atomic bomber per turn. 2. This bomber will roll THREE (3) dice instead of one for purposed of IPC destruction. The bomb has no direct military effects in the area in which it is used, and there are no lingering effects of the bomb in that area.
2.3.2 Bombing of Captured Factories:
This rule corrects a loophole in the existing game rules. Since captured factories can only be used to place no more than one unit per the area’s IPC value per turn for the capturing player, they should not be able to be strategically bombed at full effect either. Therefore when strategically bombing a captured factory, the maximum number of IPC’s that can be removed from the owning player’s treasury is equal to the IPC value of the area. Die rolls exceeding this amount are ignored and the bombing player continues to reroll until a valid number is rolled. Antiaircraft guns can still shoot at bombers.
2.3.3 Seizure of IPC’s upon Capture of Capital:
This rule is more of a ‘game’ rule than a ‘wargame’ rule. It is difficult to envision the meaning of this rule in a realistic setting. It is hard to imagine a victorious German Panzer army rolling into Moscow, opening a big vault in the Kremlin, and discovering the entire treasure of the Soviet nation stored there like the riches in an Egyptian tomb, ready to be carted away to Berlin. This optional rule simply eliminates the provision for seizing the IPC’s from the player whose nation’s capital is captured. The IPC’s are retuned to the bank instead.
Axis and Allies Europe (AAE) is a tremendous game. The graphic presentation is superb and the entire package is simply outstanding. However, the victory conditions leave something to be desired. They are rather simplistic and do not seem to represent the historical possibilities. This is especially true as regards the Axis victory conditions. As a result, game play can be distorted to unrealistic extremes. To remedy this, alternative victory conditions have been introduced for this otherwise fine game.
The basic game’s rules state that for the Allies to win, one of them must capture Berlin and hold through their next turn, while also holding their own capital. For the most part, this seems reasonable. Berlin is probably the most important of all of the capital cities and in all likelihood the fall of Berlin would constitute the defeat of Germany. The Axis conditions for victory are the problematic ones.
Per the basic game rules, the Germans can achieve victory by capturing any one of the three Allied capitals (Moscow, London, or Washington) and holding it through the next German turn while also maintaining control of Berlin. This does not seem to be a very accurate take on the most likely historical outcomes.
As the game is structured, the Germans are unquestionably best situated to attack Russia and drive on Moscow. They are very likely to capture it in five to six turns if they are patient and methodical and do not allow themselves be distracted by the Western Allies. However, consider in historical terms if the Germans in fact did take Moscow while the West was building up a significant military force. Would the fall of Moscow force Britain to capitulate? This does not seem likely.
Consider that in the summer of 1940, Britain found itself alone, with France having fallen, the US still neutral, and the Soviets actually a treaty partner of the Germans (In reality the treaty was a sham, as the Russians were to discover the next year. However, this fact was not apparent at the time and England certainly could not count on Russia becoming an ally). This situation was every bit as bad for England as the one that the game recreates when Germany captures Moscow. Yet in the historical example, even as the Luftwaffe was pounding the cities and airfields of England, the British gave no indication of being prepared to concede, and in fact vowed to fight on (highlighted by Churchill’s famous “we will fight them in the hills” speech). It is difficult to believe that Russia’s exit from the war would trigger a British capitulation.
Would the US sue for peace because Moscow fell? This also seems unlikely. The US did not see itself fighting for the Russians so much as they were responding to Hitler’s declaration of war upon them, as well as coming to the aid of the mother country, England. Whether or not Russia continued the fight would have likely had little impact on the US’s determination to both defend itself and come to the aid of the British.
Finally, would the Russians themselves lay down their arms simply because Moscow fell? Again, the answer is probably not. The Russians had been invaded before, in 1812, by Napoleon. In that campaign, the French did in fact succeed in taking Moscow. This did not trigger a Russian surrender. Rather, in the end, it was the French who were forced to abandon Moscow and retreat westward. During the German invasion, the Russians began an exodus of industrial capacity eastward over the Urals. The loss of Moscow would have been a blow to the Russians, but by itself would not have been cause to seek terms. It seems likely that only the loss of the bulk of European Russia and its industrial capacity would lead to a Russian surrender.
The next point to address is the probable results of an English capitulation. Had the Germans attempted Sealion and succeeded, would the fall of London have signaled the end of the war against Hitler? Certainly, it is conceivable that the British may have been forced from the war. England’s greatest strengths were its navy and its colonial empire. With London (and therefore essentially England itself) in German hands, the British would have been without the means to sustain and expand its navy. More importantly, control of the vast and far-flung Empire would have probably proven impossible in exile. However, having said this, is it realistic to assume that London’s falling would have triggered either a Russian or American surrender, or even for that matter, a willingness on the part of Hitler to halt the war?
It is nearly inconceivable that Stalin and the Russian military would have laid down their weapons simply because the British were vanquished. In fact, had the Germans not attacked Russia in June of 1941, the Soviet Union may have initiated hostilities themselves by 1943. In 1941, when the Germans historically made their attack on Russia, the Soviets were in no condition to consider attacking Germany. However, as the Russians were in the process of rearming, this would not have been the case several years later. While perhaps motivated for different reasons than the Nazis, the Russians were also quite fond of increasing their real estate holdings. The point here is that Russia’s willingness to fight would not have necessarily been affected by Britain being knocked out of the war. Perhaps even more importantly than Russia’s willingness to fight the Nazis, Germany’s own war aims were firmly rooted in the East. It was after all the prospect of conquering and colonizing European Russian that drove Hitler to war. Hilter’s desires for this were documented in Mein Kampf years earlier. Germany strove to defeat Britain only because it had to in order to clear the way for dealing with Russia. In summary, both Russia and Germany had reason to continue fighting even if Britain were knocked out of the war.
As for the US, it is a different story. With Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, the US was energized for the fight in the Pacific. Had Hitler not declared war on the USA three days later, it is probable that the US would not have fought Germany at all, concentrating instead on Japan. If the Germans had succeeded in taking England out of the war, it is possible that the US would have sought peace terms with the Germans. The war in Europe may have seemed like a lost cause, and there was a war to fight with the Japanese. The Germans of course may not have accepted terms from the US, but then again it might have, especially with the prospect of having to consolidate its gains in Europe.
Lastly, although it is difficult to envision, it is at least theoretically possible that Germany could have captured Washington. This almost certainly could not happen unless the British were already out of the war (if not the British and the Russians both). But, on the off chance that the Germans took Washington while one or more of the other Allies were still in the war, what would the impact have been? As was stated earlier in the case of a Russian collapse, it is unlikely that England would have given up because Washington had fallen. The British were grimly determined to fight to the end. As for the Russians, it is much the same as if London had fallen. So long as the Soviets were in possession of significant military force and still held their lands, there would be no motivation for them to automatically surrender because of the fall of the American capital. And as for the US itself, the situation would have been similar to the one facing the Russians upon the fall of Moscow. With a nation as vast as the USA, it is hard to imagine that the fall of the capital would automatically trigger an American surrender. However, the chances that the US would sue for peace would be very high.
So, what does this brief analysis reveal? Primarily, it reveals that the fall of any one Allied capital would not have meant the end of the war. Neither the remaining Allies, nor the Germans for that matter, would have necessarily been ready to stop fighting simply because one of the Allied capitals had fallen. If this is the case, we must consider what it would have taken to end this war and adjust the game’s victory conditions to reflect this analysis.
In simplest terms, the Germans could only win if all three Allies were out of the war. Only then could the Nazis consider the war a success and proceed to colonize the East. The question then is what would be required to get each of the Allies out of the war. For the British, as has been discussed, it is fair to say that the fall of London, and only the fall of London, would result in a British surrender and exit from the war. For the Russians, it is another matter. Foreign capitals falling would certainly not trigger a Russian surrender. Losing Moscow also would not automatically mean a Soviet defeat. What then? Probably nothing less than the virtual annihilation of the Russian military and the occupation of European Russian would suffice. As for the US, there are several scenarios where the fall of either its own capital or one or more of its allies’ capitals could trigger an American request for peace terms. Should both of its allies be eliminated, it is highly likely that the US would have had little choice but to sue for peace with Germany while pursuing its Pacific struggle against the Japanese. While the Germans were Tripartite alliance partners with the Japanese, it is not unreasonable to assume that the Germans, having achieved their war aims in Europe, might have accepted terms with the US. This would not have been a welcome development to the Japanese, but as Stalin learned, being the ally of Germany carried a certain degree of risk.
Attachment “A” Time Track – Axis and Allies Optional Rule Set SPRING 1941
SUMMER 1941 FALL 1941 Siberian Reinforcements WINTER 1941 Russian Winter
SPRING 1942 Russian Winter
SUMMER 1942 FALL 1942 WINTER 1942 Russian Winter
SPRING 1943 Russian Winter
SUMMER 1943 FALL 1943 WINTER 1943 Russian Winter
SPRING 1944 Russian Winter
SUMMER 1944 FALL 1944 Roll for A-Bomb WINTER 1944 Russian Winter Roll for A-Bomb
SPRING 1945 Russian Winter Roll for A-Bomb SUMMER 1945 Roll for A-Bomb FALL 1945 Roll for A-Bomb WINTER 1945 Russian Winter Roll for A-Bomb
SPRING 1946 Russian Winter Roll for A-Bomb SUMMER 1946 Roll for A-Bomb FALL 1946 Roll for A-Bomb WINTER 1946 Russian Winter Roll for A-Bomb