Download Most optional rules not implemented.
I kept the lay-out of this huge file as close as possible to the lay-out of the original file. I suggest you print this file.
An Axis and Allies Expansion Pack
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
ALTERNATE HISTORY SCENARIO FOR FOUR PLAYERS An alternate history, four player scenario, which begins AFTER Nazi Germany occupies Britain, and immediately after the United States and the remnants of the British Commonwealth form a joint, unified military command.
ALTERNATE HISTORY CHRONOLOGY Background for the scenario.
OPTIONAL RULES Six optional rules to add to the game, which may be used either individually or in combination with one another.
ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY CHART A chart which allows for "advanced technology" breakthroughs in each of the six research areas.
WORLD POWER WEAPONS DEVELOPMENT TABLES Five tables which give each country different chances for breakthroughs in each of the six research areas.
WEAPONS DEVELOPMENT TABLES NOTES An explanation of the World Power Weapons Development Table's derivation, and brief historical reasoning for each of the tables.
ALTERNATE HISTORY SCENARIO FOR FOUR PLAYERS:
Winter, 1941-1942. The world is at war. In this "alternate history" scenario, Nazi Germany won the Battle of Britain and went on to invade and conquer Britain. The remnants of the British Commonwealth then joined with the United States under a Unified Military Command, forming the Unified Military Command of the Commonwealth and the United States, or UMC-C-US. The CUS and the USSR must act quickly to prevent the Axis from conquering the rest of the world. For four players.
The Second Edition rules are used except as noted below.
Karelia and Britain have no original industrial complexes.
The order of play is altered: Germany goes first, the USSR goes second, Japan goes third, and the CUS goes fourth.
Axis Economic Victory rules are DELETED.
If Britain is liberated by either the CUS or the USSR, all CUS forces remain under Unified Command i.e. nothing changes. Britain is treated as a "Capitol Territory" ONLY for the Axis victory condition, which is to complete a full round of play in possession of two of the three Allied capitol territories, with neither Axis capitol territory being occupied. The Allied victory condition, however, is to complete a round of play in possession of all five capitol territories -- to totally eliminate both Axis powers from the game.
Ukraine is considered to be an "original" USSR territory. Therefore, if Ukraine is liberated by the CUS, control passes over to the USSR; but if Ukraine is conquered by Japan, then Ukraine becomes a Japanese controlled territory.
All original UK territories (including enemy-occupied UK territories e.g. Britain and India) and all original US territories (including China but NOT including the Philippines or Wake Island) are considered to be "original" CUS territories. Therefore, if e.g. Britain is liberated by the USSR, control passes over to the CUS, and if China is liberated by the USSR, control passes over to the CUS; but if e.g. the Philippines is conquered by the USSR, then the Philippines becomes a USSR controlled territory.
Note that many units at CUS disposal are Commonwealth forces ordered to place themselves under Unified Military Command by the King, in exile in Ottawa (see below).
ALTERNATE HISTORY SCENARIO GAME SETUP:
Put GERMANY Control Markers in Britain, Gibraltar, French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan;
Put USSR Control Marker in Ukraine;
Put JAPAN Control Markers in China and India;
Put US Control Markers in East Canada, West Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Persia, Syria-Iraq, Italian East Africa, Belgian Congo, Kenya-Rhodesia, South Africa, Madagascar, Wake Island and the Philippines.
GERMANY 41 USSR 27 JAPAN 27 CUS 52
Order of Play:
Germany USSR Japan CUS As noted above, many of the units at CUS disposal are Commonwealth forces, ordered by King George VI to place themselves under Unified Military Command for the duration of hostilities. Therefore, the CUS player may either use only US pieces, or optionally may exchange for UK pieces as follows: All of the units in Australia, South Africa, Kenya-Rhodesia, East Africa and Syria-Iraq; the infantry and bomber units in East Canada, and the fighter, transport and battleship units in the Eastern United States. Note that exercising this option has no effect on the game, aside from changing the appearance of the aforementioned units; The UK and US pieces are all CUS pieces, and the CUS player must still observe the limitation of e.g. 15 stacks of infantry, 3 stacks of battleships, etc.
BRITAIN 3 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 armor, 1 AA
W. EUROPE 2 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 submarine (West), 1 armor, Ind., AA
GERMANY 3 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 battleship, 4 armor, 1 bomber, Ind., AA
S. EUROPE 2 infantry, 1 transport, 1 armor, 1 battleship
E. EUROPE 3 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 armor
EGY-SUDAN 1 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 submarine (E. Med.), 1 armor
ALGERIA 3 infantry
W. AFRICA transport
FIN-NOR 1 infantry
Starting IPCs: 41
UKRAINE 2 infantry, 1 armor, AA
KARELIA 6 infantry, 1 fighter, 2 armor, AA
CAUCASUS 3 infantry, Ind., AA
RUSSIA 6 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 armor, AA
EVENKI 2 infantry
YAKUT 1 infantry
FAR EAST 2 infantry
Starting IPCs: 27
JAPANESE FORCES INDIA 1 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 armor
CHINA 1 infantry
BURMA 1 infantry, 1 fighter
KWANGTUNG 2 infantry
MANCHURIA 2 infantry
JAPAN 4 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 transport, 1 armor, 1 bomber, 1 battleship, Ind., AA
OKINAWA 2 infantry, 1 submarine
NEW GUINEA 1 infantry, 1 submarine
BORNEO 1 infantry
E. INDIES 2 infantry, 1 fighter*, 1 transport, 1 carrier
AUSTRALIA 1 submarine (South) (not owned)
- to be placed on aircraft carrier
Starting IPCs: 27
AUSTRALIA 2 infantry
S. AFRICA 2 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 transport (Southeast)
KEN-RHO 1 infantry
E. AFRICA 1 infantry
SYR-IRAQ 1 infantry, 1 submarine (South), 1 armor
E. CANADA 1 infantry, 1 bomber, 1 submarine
ALASKA 1 infantry, 1 transport (Southeast)
W.US 2 infantry, 1 fighter, Ind., AA
E. US 2 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 transport, 1 armor, 1 battleship, Ind., AA
PERSIA 2 infantry
SINKIANG 3 infantry, 1 fighter
PHILIPPINES 3 infantry, 1 fighter
HAWAII 2 infantry, 1 fighter, 1 transport, 1 battleship
CAROLINES 1 submarine, 1 battleship (not owned)
Starting IPCs: 52
ALTERNATE HISTORY CHRONOLOGY:
10 JAN 1940 Major Hellmuth Reinberger, carrying the plans for the invasion of Western Europe, flies from Muenster to Cologne in a Messerchmitt Taifun scout plane. The Taifun's pilot, Major Erich Hoenmanns, becomes lost in the early morning fog, but eventually locates the Rhine river, and successfully lands in Cologne.
17 JAN 1940 German forces attack into the Netherlands and Belgium along a broad front; the main thrust of their attack is west, toward the Belgian city of Liege. King Leopold belatedly asks the Allies for assistance, and allows part of the French army, and the entire BEF, to cross the border and enter Belgium; the Allies march northeast to meet the Germans.
26 JAN 1940 The Netherlands surrenders.
Jan-Feb 1940 Because of bad weather, the Luftwaffe is forced to spend much of the Winter on the ground, and so German progress is slower than planned. Hitler, enraged, blames Goering, whose weather experts had earlier predicted a two week long period of clear, cold weather. However, Hitler's disappointment does not match the disappointment of the British; for German progress, though slow, is steady. Barely a day passes when they do not force the British to surrender another strongpoint, or to fall back from another defensive line. The British fight "like lions", but they are simply no match for the Germans; In all of the vital areas of training, leadership, equipment, tactics, and co-ordination of combined forces, they are substantially inferior to the Germans. Those French troops who fight alongside the BEF fight bravely but suffer from even worse deficiencies in those vital areas; meanwhile, the majority of the French army remains immobile, in defensive fortifications alongside the German, the Spanish and even the Swiss borders.
23 FEB 1940 German panzer and motorized divisions smash through the Ardennes and quickly overwhelm the thin French defenses. This new and unexpected attacking force, conceived of by Hitler, captures Sedan within days and then turns south. Faced with the prospect of Paris being overrun (and of themselves being cut off), the French forces in Belgium panic and begin a full-scale retreat.
25 FEB 1940 Brussels falls and Belgium surrenders. King Leopold orders the entire Belgian army to stand down, which opens a gaping hole between the flanks of the BEF and the retreating French. The outcome is as inevitable as it is predictable:
Feb-Mar 1940 The BEF, in danger of being encircled, retreats along the coast, running for their lives. Just south of them, enemy panzers and motorized infantry are racing them west, trying to encircle them and cut off their retreat; the British are forced to give up first Dunkirk, then Calais, then Boulogne, then Dieppe to the advancing Germans; it is a catastrophic rout of totally unprecedented dimensions.
FEB 27 1940 The Chamberlain Government falls; Churchill forms a new government.
10 MAR 1940 Paris falls.
15 MAR 1940 Operation Dynamo begins. The BEF, having retreated into the Cotentin peninsula west of Normandy, just barely manages to establish and hold a defensive line at the base of the peninsula, while a fleet of over forty British, Dutch, French and Belgian destroyers begins to evacuate the surviving British and French troops from the peninsula. However, German panzer and motorized forces make steady progress up both sides of the peninsula, and the Luftwaffe attacks the evacuation fleet from hastily constructed forward airfields.
20 MAR 1940 The Allied perimeter collapses and Operation Dynamo ends. More than 140,000 troops have been rescued -- five times as many as Churchill had originally hoped for. But this is still far less than half of the total number of Allied soldiers in the peninsula. The Germans take more than 200,000 British and French soldiers prisoner in Cotentin.
07 JUN 1940 The Luftwaffe launches an all-out attack on Britain's RAF, placing priority on the destruction of airfields and radar towers. Luftflotte 2 and Luftflotte 3 take part in the operation, code-named EAGLE.
Jul-Aug 1940 The Luftwaffe achieves air superiority over Britain and begins paving the way for invasion.
01 SEP 1940 Exactly one year after the invasion of Poland, Hitler launches Operation Sea Lion -- the invasion of Britain. The British are forced to give ground slowly but surely, destroying all rail centers, bridges and heavy industry in territory they are forced to surrender.
04 OCT 1940 London falls; the Royal Family flees to Ottawa.
15 NOV 1940 Emboldened by the German victories, Japan declares war on the British Empire and simultaneously lays siege to Hong Kong and Shanghai, and invades Malaysia.
26 NOV 1940 King George VI orders resistance in Britain to cease. To this date, over 30,000 soldiers have been evacuated from Scotland to Iceland.
Dec-Mar 1941 Scattered resistance continues in Britain.
04 DEC 1940 Emperor Hirohito agrees to his generals’ plan for an Asian campaign.
10 DEC 1940 Long-range Luftwaffe bombers destroy a Royal Navy sub pen under construction in Iceland. Naval fighting so far between Germany and Commonwealth forces has been fierce, with heavy losses on both sides.
13 DEC 1940 Japan begins operations against Indochina.
25 DEC 1940 Hitler visits London to personally supervise the razing of Buckingham
18 MAR 1941 German amphibious forces invade Norway.
20 MAR 1941 German forces enter Cairo in triumph.
05 APR 1941 Japan begins operations against India.
May-Aug 1941 Citing the threat presented by Japan, the US begins reinforcing the Philippines and Persia, and increases the preparedness of its Pacific Fleet. The Japanese state that they are "shocked and outraged at these provocative and warlike acts".
17 JUL 1941 Germany invades the USSR. Due to the lateness of the season, the campaign has "limited" objectives of Talinn, Moscow and Rostov. The Red Air Force is totally unprepared and is all but destroyed; and even though the Soviet troops fight fanatically, by the end of September more than 1,600,000 of them have been either killed or captured (in addition to an unknown number of civilian deaths). But because of an unexpectedly early and harsh Winter (the worst in a century), only the northern (and most conservative) objective of Talinn is reached by December.
11 AUG 1941 In a tank battle in the Sinai, Commonwealth forces (supplied with American arms and equipment), win a decisive victory over Rommel's panzers, forcing him to retreat across the Suez.
07 SEP 1941 Japan makes a surprise air raid at Pearl Harbor, simultaneous with a declaration of war against the United States.
09 SEP 1941 Germany declares war on the United States.
11 SEP 1941 President Roosevelt and King George VI announce the formation of the Unified Military Command of the Commonwealth and the United States (UMC-C-US). The two leaders order all Commonwealth and all US forces to place themselves under Unified Command for the duration of hostilities.
Sep-Dec 1941 Although naval fighting is intense and losses are heavy on both sides, the US manages to keep open its supply lines with the Philippines.
Oct-Dec 1941 The Battle of Iceland. The Kriegsmarine wins a pyrrhic victory over CUS forces, destroying the recently constructed Commonwealth naval base and several airfields on Iceland. However, the German task forces are decimated and many Royal Navy vessels and aircraft are able to withdraw to the east coast of North America. The British bombers are rebased in Newfoundland by late December (the United States Army Air Force, participating in the battle, suffered the greatest losses, with over five hundred aircraft shot down in the course of the month).
16 DEC 1941 The USSR launches a major counteroffensive against the Germans, stunning them with huge numbers of the revolutionary T-34 tank and the new Il-2 "Sturmovic" attack plane, as well as several other new types of plane. Hampered by the severe Winter weather and suffering from lack of supplies, the Germans are forced to give ground on several fronts. Hitler orders that the retreat stop just in time to prevent it from turning into a rout.
01 JAN 1942 ?
These six rules may be used either individually or in combination with one another. However, the first four rules are strongly recommended for all games.
Scorched Earth Rule:
Play the six steps of the ACTION SEQUENCE in this order: 1, 6, 2, 3, 4, 5. In other words, you do not collect income at the end of your turn, but after you DEVELOP WEAPONS AND/OR PURCHASE UNITS and before COMBAT MOVEMENT. This way you cannot collect income from a territory unless you have held it for one full turn. In addition, if an enemy capitol territory is conquered, the conquering player does not collect any of the former owner's IPCs; they are simply returned to the bank (Note: Well known war crimes notwithstanding, World War II was a war of attrition, not a war of "looting and pillaging").
Limited Industrial Damage Rule:
Total damage is defined as the total destruction of a country's economy through strategic bombing and/or rocket attacks, requiring that country to surrender all IPCs to the bank. It is always possible to cause total damage by bombing an enemy capitol territory (E. US, Britain, Russia, Germany or Japan) but for any other industrial complex the maximum possible damage is two times the economic value of the territory. This applies to new industry as well as to the original industry in W. US, S. Europe and Karelia. It also applies to conquered enemy capitol territories.
Restricted New Industry Production Rule:
It is not possible to build battleships, aircraft carriers or bombers with new Industrial Complexes (complexes purchased during the game).
Multinational Naval Air Prohibition:
A fighter of one nationality may never land on a carrier of a different nationality.
Naval Bombardment Rule:
When a unit is hit by a battleship’s one-shot support attack, it is removed immediately, and does not get to roll defensively.
In the COMBAT MOVEMENT phase, any ground unit (infantry, armor or AA gun) which moves and which does not either begin its movement, or end its movement in a territory with an Industrial Complex (friendly or enemy) must pay IPCs to the bank for its support; 1 IPC per infantry, 2 IPCs per armor and 2 IPCs per AA gun. It must pay at the time that it moves; if the owning player does not have enough IPCs, it may not move (Note: it is assumed that every Industrial Complex sits at the center of a rail and road network which connects its territory to adjacent territories, aiding supply and communication).
ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY CHARTS:
After a country makes a breakthrough in one area it is possible to make a subsequent breakthrough in the same area and achieve advanced technology in that area. But if this table is used, re-rolls are not allowed. Example: If you achieve a breakthrough and then roll a six, you have heavy conventional bombers (see below). If you achieve another breakthrough and roll a six again, you have heavy atomic bombers! But if you achieve a third breakthrough and roll a six again, you may not re-roll, you enjoy no additional weapons benefits and your money is lost!
INITIAL BREAKTHROUGH & SUBSEQUENT BREAKTHROUGH
JET POWER Each of your fighter's defence capability is increased to 5.
Every time a defending jet rolls a one, that unit re-rolls for an additional possible victory!
ROCKET One free rocket attack per turn against an industrial complex, fired from one of your AA guns with a range of 3.
You have developed ICBMs! You may now make a rocket attack against an enemy industrial complex, fired from one of your AA guns with a range of 5!
SUPERSUBMARINES Each of your submarine's attack capability is increased to 3.
Anti-Submarine Warfare! (radar, sonar, etc.) Enemy subs attacking your naval units lose their special first-shot attack capability!
LONGRANGE AIRCRAFT The range of your fighters is increased to 6; the range of your bombers is increased to 8.
Special retreat option! As with subs, defending aircraft now have the option to retreat to an adjacent territory when attacked; fighters may retreat to carriers in an adjacent sea zone.
INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY Every unit's production cost is reduced by 1 IPC.
Subtract 1 additional IPC from the costs of all naval units, and 2 additional IPCs from the costs of all air units!
HEAVY BOMBERS The first time you make a breakthrough in heavy bombers, roll only 2 dice for a strategic bombing raid, and only 1 die for regular combat.
As given in the rules – these are the heavy (atomic) bombers that you know and love! Each attacking bomber rolls 3 dice instead of 1. Choose either military units or industrial complexes as targets.
WORLD POWER WEAPONS DEVELOPMENT TABLES:
When your country makes a breakthrough, simply roll two six-sided dice, adding the results; then take the total and consult your country's Weapon Development Table to see what breakthrough was made!
In the Four Player Alternate History Scenario, use the USA table for the CUS.
USA UK USSR 2: Rockets 2: Heavy Bombers 2: Long-Range Planes
3: Jet Fighters 3: Long-Range Planes 3: Jet Fighters
4: Long-Range Planes 4: Rockets 4: Rockets
5: Super Subs 5: Industrial Tech 5: Industrial Tech
6: Heavy Bombers 6: Jet Fighters 6: Super Subs
7: Long-Range Planes 7: Super Subs 7: Industrial Tech
8: Super Subs 8: Heavy Bombers 8: Industrial Tech
9: Heavy Bombers 9: Jet Fighters 9: Super Subs
10: Industrial Tech 10: Super Subs 10: Heavy Bombers
11: Rockets 11: Industrial Tech 11: Long-Range Planes
12: Jet Fighters 12: Long-Range Planes 12: Jet Fighters
2: Long-Range Planes 2: Super Subs
3: Jet Fighters 3: Heavy Bombers
4: Rockets 4: Long-Range Planes
5: Super Subs 5: Industrial Tech
6: Industrial Tech 6: Jet Fighters
7: Super Subs 7: Rockets
8: Super Subs 8: Super Subs
9: Industrial Tech 9: Jet Fighters
10: Heavy Bombers 10: Rockets
11: Long-Range Planes 11: Industrial Tech
12: Jet Fighters 12: Heavy Bombers
Historically Germany did develop jets and rockets and used them to good effect. Germany also developed "industrial tech" (under Speer) but should have developed it MUCH earlier than it did. Germany also came close to winning the Battle of the Atlantic (supposedly the only battle that ever made Churchill sweat) and at the very end of the war did, in fact, develop "super subs" (Soviet copies of which were still in service up to the end of the Cold War): the Type XXI U-boat was far ahead of its time. As for long range aircraft, Germany did in fact have aircraft capable of reaching the Eastern United States, but by 1943 it was impossible (to say nothing of futile) to produce them in any numbers. Germany also had conventional heavy bombers but the political decision was made to not sacrifice medium bomber output for the sake of heavy bomber production. The Atomic Bomb was the only technological breakthrough that Germany never came close to achieving. All of these factors -- mostly due to political decisions -- are reflected in Germany's table.
There are a couple of things about the British table which may seem odd. First, Britain’s submarines were serviceable but unremarkable, and no British equivalent of the German Type XXI U-boat entered service during the war; yet the British table gives Britain a good chance of developing super subs while Germany has only a fair chance. This reflects the fact that in AXIS AND ALLIES, sub units are often forced into the role that would ordinarily be filled by small and medium sized capital ships, representing, in the abstract, task forces made up of destroyers, light cruisers etc. (similarly, the other great naval powers, the US and Japan, have good and excellent chances, respectively, for developing super subs). Second, although Britain historically had fairly good heavy bombers, Britain’s table gives it only a fair chance for developing heavy bombers. The reason for this is that ordinary AXIS AND ALLIES heavy bombers (which roll three dice against all targets) are atomic bombers, and Britain did not attempt to develop the Atomic Bomb during World War II. It is true that my Advanced Technology Chart introduces a conventional heavy bomber breakthrough, reclassifying atomic heavy bombers as Advanced Technology; but my World Power Weapons Development Tables and Advanced Technology Chart, like everything else in this Expansion Pack, are designed to be used either singly or in combination.
Short explanations for the US and USSR tables -- I wanted to give the USSR an excellent chance for industrial tech and poor chances for everything else. This of course does not add up to 36/36, so I gave it a good chance for super subs, which should be a complete waste of money for the USSR player (Communist bureaucracy? :-)), in addition to its excellent chance for industrial tech. As for us Americans, our British allies GAVE us jet technology in the first half of the war, but A&A has no technology sharing between allies. Regarding industrial tech, when we finally entered the war in December 1941 we basically already had industrial tech, but because of our democratic and capitalist system we did not enjoy the same benefits from industrial tech as the fascist dictatorships did (we also did not employ slave labor on a vast scale as did Germany and Japan).
If you disagree with my judgment, or if you believe that the Weapons Development Tables give one side or the other too much of an advantage, adjust them to your preferences using the information I have provided. AXIS AND ALLIES should be a fun game -- not a history lesson! Enjoy!
My A&A philosophy is that A&A is a game, not a historical simulation. It is, first and foremost, fun. It's rules are simple, clear and easy to memorize. Every rule with the exception of the victory conditions is a general rule which is applicable to ALL players. It can be played in one sitting. There are no CRTs! I believe that these are STRENGTHS of the game, and that all A&A expansions and optional rules should follow these guidelines (of course even I bend the rules with my Weapon Development Tables, but hey, they are optional; if you don't like them, don't use them).
My Four Player Alternate History Scenario evolved out of necessity; I had exactly three gaming friends! ;-) I put a lot of time into it (I was in college at the time) and play-tested it extensively. It is better balanced than the five player scenario that the game comes with, but ONLY if the Allied player is experienced, aggressive, and can make good use of his air assets; his game is held together by an invisible, worldwide web of fighters and bombers. If the Allied player is not up to this task (assuming reasonably competent and aggressive Axis play), Axis victory is virtually guaranteed.
I developed most of this stuff back in 1990 and 1991; by 1992 the Four Player Alternate History Scenario, the Advanced Technology Chart, and the World Power Weapons Development Tables were all in their final forms, along with the Scorched Earth Rule, the Limited Industrial Damage Rule, the Restricted New Industry Production Rule, and the Multinational Naval Air Prohibition Rule, as well as most of the Alternate History Chronology (which I began at that time with the June 07 1940 date of Eagle Day). I uploaded everything to the USENET forum rec.games.board several times and received very positive responses to it, especially to my Four Player Scenario and my Alternate History Chronology.
In 1998 I added the Naval Bombardment Rule and the Logistics Rule, which is still in the process of being playtested. Originally it required that both COMBAT and NON-COMBAT movement be paid for, which was brutal on the Axis; especially in the Alt. History scenario where there is no industry in Britain or Karelia. (I am toying with the idea of giving each Axis player a free Industrial Complex placement during pre-game setup). However it does seem to have the very desirable effect of making it difficult for the Japanese to commit substantial forces to the USSR, without resorting to an arbitrary Russo-Japanese Peace Rule like I once did (it also makes it harder for anybody to commit substantial forces to Africa). So consider it a "beta" version, and try it for something different!
I also converted a bunch of text files to a Word 6.0 document, rephrased lots of things, added the first part of the Alternate History Chronology (before June 07 1940), added the Churchill quote etc. But with the exception of the addition of the last two Optional Rules there have been no substantive changes since 1992.
Clarification: in the Alternate History, the political status of all Commonwealth members is completely unchanged after the formation of the UMC-C-US (the Monarchy and the British Government still exist, albeit in exile).
Clarification: when using the Advanced Technology Chart, super subs always attack with a three, even if the defending country has developed super subs AND Anti-Submarine Warfare.
Be sure to check out my A&A web page: http://www.akula.com/~teukros
Copyright 1990-1993, 1996-1998 by Ross Starkey.